Devonian and Carboniferous deposits are found in many places around the world. The record of climate change preserved in them is the best (and only) resource of information on the Earth`s climate system then, at a time, when current and future climatic change is one of society`s greatest challenges. This book introduces some of the key areas of Mid-Palaeozoic sediment occurrence worldwide, authored by 114 specialists from more than 30 countries. The areas were studied as part of the UNESCO/IUGS project on climate change and biodiversity patterns in the mid-Palaeozoic (Devonian and Carboniferous). This large-scale taxonomic, stratigraphic and palaeoecological study of mid-Paleozoic floras and faunas has resulted in 86 contributions and more than 25 artistic reconstructions characterizing the biosphere of the Devonian and Carboniferous. Each contribution describes (in English and the respective national language) the scope of the IGCP project in the respective country, exemplified by representative Devonian/Carboniferous age geological sections and/or regions there. The authors intend to enhance the visibility and the perception of relevance of research on mid-Palaeozoic deposits beyond the Earth Science community.