This volume contains the papers of the international RefoRC conference on 'Reformed Majorities and Minorities in Early Modern Europe' as it was organized by the Johannes a Lasco Bibliothek, Emden in cooperation with the Faculty of 'Artes Liberales' of the University of Warsaw. The conference took place April 10-12, 2013 in Emden and was part of the research project 'Doctrina et Tolerantia' directed by the Johannes a Lasco Bibliothek. The contributions in this volume deal with the question how the relation between doctrine and toleration was dealt with in territories with a Reformed majority. Did the refugee-experience of the Reformed make them tolerant or militant? How did official policy relate to everyday practice? Were there different opinions on this issue within the Reformed tradition? The answers to these questions give more insights into the diversity of international Calvinism and the way theory was put into practice.